On Intelligence in Cells: The Case for Whole Cell Biology

Biology needs revolution. All my adult life, I have been lost with admiration
for the achievements in molecular biology and genetics, and I have come to
know many of the main proponents. Yet there is an alternative aspect: in
studying the minutiae, we have lost sight of the whole cell as organism.
Living cells within the body are modelled in this paper as coordinated but
essentially autonomous entities. We shall see how independent cells in
nature have remarkable abilities to make decisions and take constructive
action, which correlate with the definitions of intelligence.

Source: a-ISR_Ford.pdf